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"C" Flange Or C-Face: A type of flange used with close-coupled pumps, speed reducers and similar equipment where the mounting holes in the flange are threaded to receive bolts. Normally the "C" flange is used where a pump or similar item is to be connected on the motor. The "C" type flange is a NEMA standard design and available with or without feet.

C frame adapter: Used to connect and align the pump to the motor with registered fits. (imperial dimensions. Called the D frame adapter in the metric system).

C Rate: The charging or discharging rate of a cell or battery, expressed in terms of its total storage capacity in Ah or mAh. So a rate of 1C means transfer of all of the stored energy in one hour; 0.1C means 10% transfer in one hour, or full transfer in 10 hours; 5C means full transfer in 12 minutes, and so on.

Calcium Carbonate: Known as scale, crystalline deposits of calcium may form on your pool surfaces, equipment, or even line your pipes like cholesterol in your arteries. Properly balanced water can prevent this.

Calcium Chloride: The flaked calcium salt used to raise levels of Calcium Hardness in your pool water. Also good for snow melting.

Calcium Hardness: A titration test is used to determine levels of the mineral calcium dissolved in the pool water.

Calcium: Calcium is a soft grey alkaline earth metal.

Calculation software: Doing pump system calculations and pump selection can be a long manual process with opportunities for many errors. Help yourself produce accurate, consistent and error free total head calculation results with PIPE-FLO software. This software can resolve complicated systems with multiple branches, handle control valves and other equipment and help you do the final pump selection with the manufacturer's electronic pump performance curves providing you with customizable search features to obtain the optimum selection.

Canned pump: A non-seal pump with the shaft, bearings and rotor contained in a can to prevent product leakage. Limited to pumping clean lubricating liquids.

Capacitor Motor: A single-phase induction motor with a main winding arranged for direct connection to the power source, and an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor. There are three types of capacitor motors: 1) capacitor start, in which the capacitor phase is in the circuit only during starting; 2) permanent-split capacitor, which has the same capacitor and capacitor phase in the circuit for both starting and running; 3) two-value capacitor motor, in which there are different values of capacitance for starting and running.

Capacitor Start Motor: similar to the split phase motor except that there is a capacitor in series with the start winding; the start windings must be disconnected from the circuit after the motor reaches about two-thirds of its running speed to keep it from over heating both the start windings and capacitor. The capacitor start motor is more costly than the split phase and is typically available from 1/4 to 3 HP. It has a higher starting torque (200-400% of run torque) and requires less starting current (400-575% of run current) because of the starting capacitor.

Capacitor Start/Capacitor Run (CSCR) Control Box: Uses a starting capacitor and a running capacitor in line; makes much less noise and will add durability to the pump motor.

Capacitor Start/Capacitor Run (CSCR) Motor: Has a run capacitor always in series with the start (auxiliary) winding and a start capacitor, connected by a normally closed switch. The cap start/cap run motor is the most costly: are usually available from 1/2–15 HP and offer high starting and breakdown torque while providing smoother running characteristics at higher horsepower ratings.

Capacitor Start/Induction Run (CSIR) Control Box: Uses a capacitor to provide more starting torque out of a three-wire CSIR motor than with a two-wire Split Phase motor but is noisier and less durable. It is less expensive and therefore the more popular control box sold in the market today.

Capacitor Start: The capacitor start single-phase motor is basically the same as the split phase start, except that it has a capacitor in series with the starting winding. The addition of the capacitor provides better phase relation and results in greater starting torque with much less power input. As in the case of the split phase motor, this type can be reversed at rest, but not while running unless special starting and reversing switches are used. When properly equipped for reversing while running, the motor is much more suitable for this service than the split phase start since it provides greater reversing ability at less watts input.

Capacitor: A storage device for electrical energy.

Capacitor: Capacitors are used on single-phase induction motors except shaded-pole, split-phase and polyphase. Start capacitors are designed to stay in circuit a very short time (3-5 seconds), while run capacitance are permanently in circuit. Capacitors are rated by capacitance and voltage. Never use a capacitor with lower capacitance or voltage ratings for replacement. A higher voltage is acceptable.

Capacitor: The Capacitor is the battery for your pool motor. It provides the energy needed while starting, to reach 3450 rpm quickly. Replace your capacitor when the shaft can be spun freely with a wrench or by hand, and when powering the motor, you hear a 'buzz' or a 'hum' from the motor, but no impeller movement. Replace your old capacitor with an exact match to the 'MFD' number on the new capacitor.

Capacity or Flow Rate: The amount of water a pump will put out or a tank will hold; the volume of liquid that passes a given point in a specified unit of time.

Capacity: Fluid flow measured in gpm, liters/min, M3/hr. etc.

Capacity-1-: Refers to a pump's flow rate capacity. Often expressed in US gpm (US gallons per minute) or l/min (liter per minute) or m^3/h (meter cube per hour).

Capacity-2-: The water handling capability (volume) of a pump expressed as gallons per minute (GPM) or gallons per hour (GPH).

Capacity (Battery): The quantity of electricity delivered by a battery under specified conditions, usually expressed in ampere-hours.

Capacity (pool): The total number of gallons of pool water your pool contains (gallonage).

Capillary action: The means by which liquid moves through the porous spaces in a solid, such as soil, plant roots, and the capillary blood vessels in our bodies due to the forces of adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension. Capillary action is essential in carrying substances and nutrients from one place to another in plants and animals.

Carbide: The compound formed when carbon combines with an element. The carbides of metal are very hard and are often used as a mechanical seal face.

Carbon bushing: Used as a restrictive bushing in flushing applications, a thermal barrier in high temperature applications, a disaster bushing in an A.P.I. gland and to support a deflecting shaft in many mechanical seal applications.

Carbon Dioxide: A gas, which when present in the water, provides necessary food for the growth of algae.

Carbon steel: Carbon steel has very good mechanical properties; good resistance to stress corrosion and sulfides. Carbon steel has high and low temperature strength, is very tough and has excellent fatigue strength. Mainly used in gate, globe, and check valves for applications up to 850°F, and in one-, two-, and three-piece ball valves.

Carbon Stee-1-: Very good mechanical properties; good resistance to stress corrosion and sulfides. Carbon steel has high and low temperature strength, is very tough and has excellent fatigue strength. Mainly used in gate, globe, and check valves for applications up to 850°F, and in one-, two-, and three-piece ball valves.

Carbon/ graphite: A common mechanical seal face material chemically inert to most fluids with the exception of oxidizers, bleaches, halogens and a few other fluids.

Carbon: With an atomic number of 6, carbon is a naturally abundant nonmetallic element which forms the basis of most living organisms.

Carbonate: Primary in the make up of total alkalinity and TDS.

Carbon-Zinc Battery: The earliest type of primary cell and battery, first developed by Georges Leclanché in 1868 and still very widely used. It uses carbon and manganese dioxide as the positive electrode and zinc as the negative electrode, with an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride as the electrolyte.

Carcinogen: Any substance which tends to produce cancer in an organism.

Carcinogen-1-: Any substance, radionuclide or radiation which is an agent directly involved in the promotion of cancer or in the facilitation of its propagation.

Carrier Frequency: The nominal frequency of a transmitted carrier wave when the modulation is zero. The higher the modulating frequency, the more resolution each PWM pulse contains OR the smoother the output waveform and the higher the resolution.

Cartridge: Depth Type: A replaceable porous filtering element with a medium not less than three-fourths inch (3/4”) thick that relies on penetration of particulates into the medium to achieve their removal.

Cartridge: One type of filtration, the cartridge is a pleated, porous element through which water is passed through.

Cartridge Filter: A filter that utilizes a porous cartridge as its filter medium.

Cartridge seal: A self-contained assembly containing the seal, gland, sleeve, and both stationary and rotating seal faces. Usually needs no installation measurement. Must be used if impeller adjustments are made. Cartridge seals are the standard for A.P.I. seal applications.

Casing: The body of the pump which encloses the impeller.

Cathode: In a primary or secondary cell, the electrode that, in effect, oxidizes the anode or absorbs the electrons.

Cation: A positively-charged ion, which has fewer electrons than protons, due to its attraction to cathodes.

Cavitate: Cavities or bubbles form in the fluid low-pressure area and collapse in a higher-pressure area of the pump, causing noise, damage and a loss of capacity.

Cavitation: A condition that occurs in pumps when the water/liquid entering the pump is changed from a liquid state to a gaseous state and back to liquid that is generally caused by too high of flow rate or from pipe that is too small for the flow rate. The formation of vapor bubbles in areas of low pressure in a liquid. It is not air in the liquid. It does not happen just in pumps. The act of cavitation itself does not cause any damage.

Cavitation-1-: Process in which small bubbles are formed and implode violently; occurs when NPSHa is less than the NPSHr.  This can be due to reduced flow or over rotation. Excessive pump RPM can cause a vortex in the eye of the impeller. Cavitation happens with the sudden collapse of gas bubbles due to the sudden pressure increase. Air bubbles attach to the metal surfaces and, under extreme pressure, implode, taking tiny bits of metal away with each implosion, pitting the impeller and volute surfaces. Excessive cavitation can cause severe, permanent damage to the pump components, resulting in poor performance.

Cavitation-2-: The collapse of bubbles that are formed in the eye of the impeller due to low pressure. The implosion of the bubbles on the inside of the vanes creates pitting and erosion that damages the impeller. The design of the pump, the pressure and temperature of the liquid that enters the pump suction determines whether the fluid will cavitate or not. As the liquid travels through the pump the pressure drops, if it is sufficiently low the liquid will vaporize and produce small bubbles. These bubbles will be rapidly compressed by the pressure created by the fast moving impeller vane. The compression creates the characteristic noise of cavitation. Along with the noise, the shock of the imploding bubbles on the surface of the vane produces a gradual erosion and pitting which damages the impeller.

Cavitation-3-:  The sudden collapse of gas bubbles due to the sudden pressure increase.

Cavitation-4-: A general term used to describe the behavior of voids or bubbles in a liquid. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behavior: inertial (or transient) cavitation and non-inertial cavitation. Inertial cavitation is the process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses, producing a shock wave. Such cavitation often occurs in pumps and impellers Non-inertial cavitation is the process where a bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate in size or shape due to some form of energy input, such as an acoustic field. Such cavitation can be observed in pumps.

Cavitation-5-: The sudden formation and collapse of low-pressure vapor (bubbles) across the vanes of the impeller. When the surface pressure on a liquid becomes low enough, the liquid will begin to boil (even at room temperature). With centrifugal pumps, cavitation can occur when the suction vacuum becomes to great enough to allow water vapor or bubbles to begin forming at the impeller. When this water vapor travels through the rapid pressure increase across the impeller, a large amount of energy is released which can cause impeller damage. Minimizing suction head and using the largest practical suction hose diameter will reduce the likelihood of cavitation. You should never use a suction hose with a diameter smaller than the pump’s suction port.

Cavitation Damage: The pitting or wearing away of a solid surface caused by the collapse of vapor bubbles created by low pressure prior to the damage.

CC Charging (Constant-Current Charging): Restoring charge to a battery in a mode where the charging current level is kept substantially constant.

Cell Reversal In NiCad batteries: with a number of cells in series, excessive discharge can cause the cells with least capacity to be partly recharged in the reverse direction. Tends to result in cell damage.

Cell: An electrochemical device, composed of positive and negative plates, separator, and electrolyte, which is capable of storing electrical energy. When encased in a container and fitted with terminals, it is the basic "building block" of a battery.

Cellulase: An enzyme, which causes the decomposition of cellulose.

Cellulose Acetate: A synthetic polymer derived from naturally occurring cellulose and widely used in the fabrication of membranes. The polymers used for reverse osmosis membranes may be diacetate, triacetate or blends of these materials.

Center line design: The pump is suspended on feet attached to the sides of the volute instead of the bottom. Used in higher temperature (> 100?C) pumping applications.

Centipoise: The metric system unit of viscosity.

Centistoke: The kinematic unit of viscosity. Viscosity in centipoises divided by the liquid density at the same temperature gives kinematic viscosity in centistokes.

Centrifugal Force: A force that tends to move something from the center to the outside of a rotating body.

Centrifugal force-1-: A force associated with a rotating body. In the case of a pump, the rotating impeller pushes fluid on the back of the impeller blade, imparting circular and radial motion. A body that moves in a circular path has a centrifugal force associated with it . The faster you spin, the more water comes out the small hole, you have pressurized the water contained in the cup using centrifugal force, just like a pump.

Centrifugal force-2-: Centrifugal force is the action that causes something to move away from its center of rotation. In the case of a pump, the rotating impeller pushes fluid on the back of the impeller blade, imparting motion. Since the motion is circular there is a centrifugal force associated with it. The force pushes the fluid against a fixed pump casing thereby pressurizing the fluid.

Centrifugal force-3-: As the engine starts, the impeller turns which forces the water around it out of the pump's discharge port. The partial vacuum created, allows the earth's air pressure to force water up the suction hose and into the suction (inlet) side of the pump to replace the displaced water. When the water hits the rotating impeller, energy of the impeller is transferred to the water, forcing the water out (centrifugal force). The water is displaced outward, and more water can now enter the suction side of the pump to replace the displaced water.

Centrifugal Pump: A type of kinetic energy pump that uses centrifugal force (slinging motion) to deliver water in a steady stream to create pressure. The pump consists of three basic components: The driver i.e. motor, PTO or engine; the stationary part, known as the pump body; and the rotating part, known as the impeller.

Centrifugal pump-1-:  Moves water by displacing liquid from the center of the impeller as it spins to the outer part of the impeller creating a vacuum in the center by means of centrifugal force. The diameter of the impeller predicts the pressure and the width predicts the water flow. Impellers can spin at 3600 RPM and 1800 RPM and other speeds , all fountain pumps are centrifugal. This type of pump is not self priming except in the case of sprinkler pumps , pumps with leaf baskets and pumps with foot valves installed (jet pumps).

Centrifugal pump-2-:  Uses centrifugal force to move water or other liquids. Centrifugal pumps use an impeller and a volute to create the partial vacuum and discharge pressure necessary to move water through the casing. The impeller and volute form the heart of a pump—their design determines its flow, pressure, and solid handling characteristics. As the impeller rotates and churns the water, it purges air from the casing, creating an area of low pressure, or partial vacuum, at the eye (center) of the impeller. The weight of the atmosphere on the external body of water pushes water rapidly through the hose and pump casing toward the eye of the impeller. Centrifugal force created by the rotating impeller pushes water away from the eye, where pressure is lowest, to the vane tips, where pressure is the highest. The velocity of the rotating vanes pressurizes the water, forcing it through the volute and discharging it from the pump.

Centrifugal separator: Sometimes called a cyclone separator. Uses centrifugal force to throw solids out of the fluid. Does not work very well in slurry seal applications.

Centrifuge: A mechanical device that uses centrifugal or rotational forces to separate solids from liquids.

Ceramic: A hard, chemically inert seal face material that includes products refereed to as silicone carbide.

Certification: When specifically related to plumbing or heating, certification of a product indicates third-party verified compliance of the tested product with a particular standard.

Change of state: When a liquid flashes into a vapor, solidifies, crystallizes, cokes etc.

Channeled Sand: When water has worked open "holes" in the sand and is streaming right through (without really going through the sand).

Channeling: The greater flow of liquid through passages of lower resistance which can occur in fixed beds or columns of particles (carbon, etc.) due to non-uniform packing, irregular sizes and shapes of the particles, gas pockets, wall effects and other causes.

Characteristic curve: Same as performance curves.

Charge Rate: The current applied to a secondary cell to restore its capacity. This rate is commonly expressed as a multiple of the rated capacity of the cell. For example, the C/10 charge rate of a 500 Ah cell is expressed as, C/10 rate = 500 Ah / 10 h = 50 A. In other words the C rate, but as applied to recharging.

Charge Retention: The degree to which a charged cell or battery maintains its capacity when not supplying load current.

Charge: Applied to a storage battery, the conversion of electric energy into chemical energy within the cell or battery. This restoration of the active materials is accomplished by maintaining a unidirectional current in the cell or battery in the opposite direction to that during discharge; a cell or battery which is said to be charged is understood to be fully charged.

Charging: The process of supplying electrical energy for conversion to stored chemical energy.

Check or Foot Valve: A device that keeps water/liquid flowing one way through a pump or piping system.

Check valve: A device for preventing flow in the reverse direction. The pump should not be allowed to turn in the reverse direction as damage and spillage may occur. Check valves are not used in certain applications where the fluid contains solids such as pulp suspensions or slurries as the check valve tends to jam. A check valve with a rapid closing feature is also used as a preventative for water hammer.

Check valve-1-:  A device used in a suction or discharge line that allows flow in only one direction to prevent reverse flow, thus isolating the material being pumped.

Check valve-2-: A one way valve placed in-line in the suction pipe to prevent water from falling back into the well, resulting in loss of prime.

Chelator: A chelating agent is a water soluble molecule that can bond tightly with metal ions, keeping them from coming out of suspension and depositing their stains and scale onto pool surfaces and equipment. Similar to sequestering agents, chelators are found in such products as "Resist" and "Sea-Klear."

Chemical Feeder: Any device to feed chemicals, but usually one feeding alum, acid, filter aid, algaecide, or soda ash. Included in this category are proportioning pumps, injector type feeders, pot type feeders, operating from a pressure differential, and dry type feeders.

Chiting: A naturally occurring polymer found in the shells of crabs and lobsters. Contained in the product "Sea-Klear." Chitin acts as a coagulant and flocculent for oils, metals, and organic materials.

Chloramines: Chemical complexes formed from the reaction between ammonia and chlorine. They are presently being used to disinfect municipal water supplies because unlike chlorine, they don't combine with organics in the water to form potentially dangerous carcinogens such as trihalomethanes (THM). Retains its bactericidal qualities for a longer time than free chlorine does. Chloramines can exist in three forms, the proportions of which depend on the physical and chemical properties of the water: Monochloramine; Dichloramine; Nitrogen Trichloride. Water containing chloramines must not be used for fish or kidney dialysis applications.

Chloramines-1-: The chlorine molecule is strongly attracted to nitrogen and ammonia. When these two combine they form a chloramine, which are undesirable, foul smelling, space taking, compounds that require shocking the pool water to get rid of.

Chloride stress corrosion: Occurs in the 300 series of stainless steel. Caused by a combination of tensile stress, chlorides and heat. No one knows the threshold values.

Chloride: A member of the halogen family of sanitizers, it's use in swimming pools is in the elemental form of a gas, liquid, granular, or tablet compound. When added to water it acts as an oxidizer, sanitizer, disinfectant, and all around biocidal agent.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons: A group of organic chemicals formed by reacting petroleum-derived chemicals with chlorine. Such chemicals include pesticides (insecticides) and herbicides and are frequently potent carcinogens.

Chlorinator: A device to automatically feed small quantities of chlorine into the pool to help keep the water disinfected (as part of the chemical treatment of the water). Some pool systems use bromine compounds instead of chlorine compounds. Never mix the two –the combination may explode.

Chlorinator-1-: A device to feed, regulate the flow, and measure the amount of chlorine gas introduced into the water being treated.

Chlorine Combined: That portion of total available chlorine left over when free available is subtracted. The measure of chlorine which has already attached itself to other molecules or organisms. Most of this is made up of chloramines.

Chlorine Demand: The quantity of free available chlorine removed during the process of sanitizing. The amount of organic and non-organic material contained in the water will demand a certain level of oxidizer to be destroyed.

Chlorine Free Available: Free Available Chlorine is that which is active, not combined with an ammonia or a nitrogen molecule, and ready to react to destroy organic material.

Chlorine Generator: A miniature chlorine factory. This device creates its own sanitizer for your pool.

Chlorine Total Available: The sum of combined and free chlorine levels. With a DPD test kit, one determines free available level, then total available. The difference, if any, is the level of combined chlorine.

Chlorine: An element, normally a gas, which is liquefied under pressure and stored in steel cylinders. Used as a disinfectant and algaecide when it is introduced in water solution into a pool or spa. A very toxic biocide. A halogen element isolated as a heavy irritating greenish-yellow gas of pungent odor, used as a bleach, oxidizing agent, and a disinfectant in water purification.

Chopper pump: A pump with a serrated impeller edge which can cut large solids and prevent clogging.

Chrome carbide: Forms when chrome forms with carbon in the heat affected zone during the welding of stainless steel. The use of low chloride stress corrosion carbon stainless steel is recommended in these applications.

Chrome Oxide: The passivated layer that forms on the 300 series of stainless steel.

Circuit Breaker: A switch which allows manual override of an electrical circuit. It also automatically breaks the circuit when current fluctuations are detected.

Chronic Health Effect: The possible result of exposure over many years to a drinking water contaminant at levels above its MCL.

Circuit:  A completely enclosed path consisting of various devices that contains an electrical current.

Circular casing: Used with centrifugal pumps that circulate fluid rather than build head or pressure.

Circulation System: The circuit of plumbing which continuously carries the water out of the pool, through the pump and filter then returns it to the pool.

Circulator (Circulator Pump): A pump designed to re-circulate water in a closed-loop or open-loop type hydronic or radiant heating system. Some of the circulator pump manufacturers include Taco, Grundfos, Wilo, Bell & Gosset, Armstrong and others. Circulators are usually manufactured with cast iron, bronze or stainless steel body, may come with various connection types, such as flanged, sweat threaded or union and are typically 115V or 230V. Optional features may include built-in check valve, line cord, aquastat and timer.

Cistern: An undergroumd tank built to collect water from wells or act as a storage for future use.

Clarifier: A clarifier is a chemical used as a coagulant of suspended micro particles. It helps the filter by clumping smaller particles into filterable sizes.

Cleanout Covers: On trash pumps a removable cover that allows easy access to the interior of the pump casing for removal of any debris.

Clear Water: Rain water runoff collected in a sump or collection basin.

Closed Impeller: Impellers designed to completely enclose the vane area with two shrouds. The front shroud is designed to incorporate an "eye" or entrance to the impeller. The back shroud is designed to incorporate either a tapped or keyed hub allowing the impeller to be attached to the driver. By enclosing the impeller vanes on both sides, the velocity of the water moving through the vanes is increased, thus enabling the impeller to produce higher head. It is the most efficient impeller type but is prone to clogging due to its closed design. Closed impellers are used in jet pumps, submersible well pumps, and some sump pumps that do not need to pass any solids or stringy material.

Closed or open impeller: The impeller vanes are sandwiched within a shroud which keeps the fluid in contact with the impeller vanes at all times. This type of impeller is more efficient than an open type impeller. The disadvantage is that the fluid passages are narrower and could get plugged if the fluid contains impurities or solids. In the case of an open impeller, the impeller vanes are open and the edges are not constrained by a shroud. This type of impeller is less efficient than a closed type impeller. The disadvantage is mainly the loss of efficiency as compared to the closed type of impeller and the advantage is the increased clearance available which will help any impurities or solids get through the pump and prevent plugging.

Closed Water Heating System: Closed Water Heating System:  A water piping system that features a check valve or another device that prevents the return of water to the water supply system.

Coagulant: A chemical which causes dispersed colloidal particles to become destabilized, thereby aiding in their removal during municipal water treatment. Aluminum and iron salts are commonly used for this purpose.

Coagulant-1-: The properties of a chemical used in the assemblage and precipitation of suspended material which may make the pool appear cloudy.

Coagulation: A practice common in municipal water treatment in which a chemical (coagulant), most commonly alum, is added to water in order to destabilize colloidal particles by neutralization of their electrical charges. Coagulation is used, together with flocculation, as a process for colloid removal.

Coated Face: A hard coating is plated or welded to a softer base material. Presents problems with different thermal expansion rates, the hard coating can "heat check" or crack. Not recommended as a seal face material.

COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand: The amount of oxygen consumed to completely chemically oxidize organic water constituents to inorganic end products.

Code: The code letter imprinted on a motor identification label that provides the locked rotor KVA (kiloVolt Amps) per horsepower value.

Colebrook equation: An equation for calculating the friction factor f of fluid flow in a pipe for Newtonian fluids of any viscosity. This factor is then used to calculate the friction loss for a straight length of pipe.

Coliform: A group of related bacteria whose presence in drinking water may indicate contamination by disease-causing microorganisms.

Collection Pit: an in-ground or above ground basin used to collect rain or surface water, sewage, or animal wastes. Also called a sump crock or sump pit when used with submersible or pedestal sump pumps.

Colloidal Mineral- Colloid: Un-dissolved, sub micron-sized, suspended particles which are well dispersed in a solution and will not readily settle out on standing. Most colloidal minerals are held in suspension by their tiny size and/or a static electrical charge. Many colloidal minerals claim to be organic due to the fact that they come from prehistoric mineral deposits such as humic shale and that some of the minerals are bound to carbon.

Commercial water use: Water used for motels, hotels, restaurants, office buildings, other commercial facilities, and institutions. Water for commercial uses comes both from public-supplied sources, such as a county water department, and self-supplied sources, such as local wells.

Community Water System: A water system which supplies drinking water to 25 or more of the same people year-round in their residences.

Commutator: A device used to convert an alternating current into a direct current.

Commutator: A cylindrical device mounted on the armature shaft and consisting of a number of wedge-shaped copper segments arranged around the shaft (insulated from it and each other). The motor brushes ride on the periphery of the commutator and electrically connect and switch the armature coils to the power source.

Compaction: The undesirable physical compression of a reverse osmosis or ultrafiltration membrane which results in reduced flux rates. The phenomenon is accelerated at higher temperatures and pressures.

Compliance: The act of meeting all state and federal drinking water regulations.

Compression set: The elastomer changes shape when it has been exposed to too much heat. Round O-rings come out square.

Concentrate: The portion of a feed stream that retains the ions, organics and suspended particles that were rejected during the cross flow filtration or purification process. Associated with water cooled distillers and reverse osmosis systems.

Concentric dual seal: One seal is located inside the other, with a common hard face shared by both of them. Because of its large radial space requirement the seal is usually limited to mixer type applications.

Concentric: The shape of a pipe or fitting meaning perfectly round.

Concentricity: When the parts share the same centerline they are concentric to each other.

Condensate: Water obtained through distillation by evaporation and subsequent condensation.

Condensation: The process of water vapor in the air turning into liquid water. Water drops on the outside of a cold glass of water are condensed water. Condensation is the opposite process of evaporation.

Conditioner: Also called Cyanuric Acid (CYA) or a stabilizer, this chemical provides a shield from the sun around the chlorine molecule, extending the efficacy; saving you money.

Conductivity: A measure of the ability of an aqueous substance to transmit an electric current. The conductivity imparted to water by dissolved solids is a function of both the amount and composition of the salts and the temperature of the water.

Conductor: A material that contains movable electric charge, metal copper being among the best.

Conductor-1-: A material that is very effective at conducting electricity. Metals are generally excellent conductors.

Conduit or Terminal Box: Contains the motor leads or terminals for connection to power source.

Conduit: A pipe, usually gray PVC or flexible PVC designed to carry wires from a source (i.e. time clock) to a load (i.e. pump motor).

Confining Layer: Layer of rock that keeps the ground water in the aquifer below it under pressure. This pressure creates springs and helps supply water to wells.

Connecting Pipe or Main Line: The line from the service line to the valve manifold.

Constant-Current Charge: A charging process in which the current of a storage battery is maintained at a constant value. For some types of lead-acid batteries this may involve two rates called the starting and finishing rates.

Constant-Voltage Charge: A charging process in which the voltage of a storage battery at the terminals of the battery is held at a constant value.

Consumptive use: That part of water withdrawn that is evaporated, transpired by plants, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. Also referred to as water consumed.

Contacts: As related to pumps, contacts are the connecting points for electrical flow used in a pressure switch. When sufficient water pressure has been achieved, the contacts open, thus turning off the pump. If water pressure drops to a preset level, the contacts close, thus sending electricity to the pump to restore desired pressure.

Contaminant: Anything found in water (including microorganisms, minerals, chemicals, radionuclides, etc.) which may be harmful to human health.

Contaminants: Any micro-particle or organism which reduces water clarity or quality and may present a health hazard. All of our filtering, circulating, and sanitizing is directed here.

Control Box: A device which contains electrical components necessary for starting and running 3-wire, single phase submersible motors.

Control volume: limits imposed for the theoretical study of a system. The limits are usually set to intersect the system at locations where conditions are known.

Control: The device that affects or alters the flow of current in a circuit. The control can turn the circuit on or off, or it can perform more sophisticated tasks.

Controller: Also known as a timer. It is the part of the automatic sprinkler system that signals the valves when to turn on and how long to run.

Convection tank: Used to contain fluid between two mechanical seals. An enclosed heater or cooler can be used to control the barrier or buffer fluid temperature. Pressure or level gages can indicate which seal has failed.

Convection: A natural circulation of fluid. The hot fluid (lighter) rises and the cool fluid (heavier) sinks.

Conversion Base: Same as adapter base. An adapter to convert current Nema "T" frame motors (which are smaller) to older Nema "U" frame motor mounting dimensions.

Convertible Jet Pump: A type of jet pump able to be converted from a shallow well to a deep well application by attaching a conversion jet kit consisting of a Nozzle, a Venturi, and a Body or Housing.

Conveyance loss: Water that is lost in transit from a pipe, canal, or ditch by leakage or evaporation. Generally, the water is not available for further use; however, leakage from an irrigation ditch, for example, may percolate to a ground-water source and be available for further use.

Cooling jacket: Surrounds the stuffing box of the pump to control the temperature of the fluid in the stuffing box. Usually molded into the back plate.

Coping: The capstone on top of the bond beam which finishes the edge around a pool or spa. It may be pre-cast concrete or brick. On vinyl liner pools pre-fabricated coping is usually part of an integrated system for the wall, vinyl liner, and deck.

Copper pipe: Rigid, straight lengths of copper pipe, usually 10ft or 20 ft long. Commonly used for plumbing and hydronic heating applications. Typical sizes include ½”, ¾”, 1”, 1-1/4”, 1-1/2” and 2”.

Copper pipe: Rigid, straight lengths of copper pipe, usually 10ft or 20 ft long. Commonly used for plumbing and hydronic heating applications. Typical sizes include ½”, ¾”, 1”, 1-1/4”, 1-1/2” and 2”.

Copper Sulfate: Similar to aluminum sulfate, this chemical provides a coagulating and flocculent function in water. Used mainly in ponds, a large amount of copper sulfate would stain a swimming pool.

Copper tubing: Soft, coiled lengths of copper tubing are common for HVAC applications and are sometimes used to connect supply water lines from stop valves to plumbing fixtures. Typical sizes include ¼”, 3/8”, ½”, 5/8” and ¾”.

Copper:  Among the most important properties of wrot copper materials are their thermal and electrical conductivity, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and ductility. Wrot copper performs well in high temperature applications and is easily joined by soldering or brazing. Wrot copper is exclusively used for fittings.

Copper-1-:  A reddish metal that is very ductile, thermally and electrically conductive, and corrosive resistant. Copper is often used to make electrical wire.

Copper-2-: An effective algaestat and algaecide. Copper as elemental is used in many pools in products like "Pooltrine."

Core: The iron portion of the stator and rotor made up of cylindrical laminated electric steel. The stator and rotor cores are concentric and separated by an air gap, with the rotor core being the smaller of the two and inside to the stator core.

Corona Discharge: An electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient (the strength of the electric field) exceeds a certain value, but conditions are insufficient to cause complete electrical breakdown or arcing.

Corrosion Resistant Material: A material with exceptional resistance to the corrosion factors to which it is subjected.

Corrosion resistant: Corrodes at a rate of less than 0.002 inches (0.05 mm) per year.

Corrosion: The etching or oxidation of a material by chemical action. Corrosion and Scale Deposits add up to a reduction in flow area, an increase of the velocity of the liquid, and an increase in head loss due to friction.

Corrosion-1-: Corrosion is the process of degrading or weakening of a metal by something that reacts with the metal. Corrosion can occur from exposure to air in the form of rust. However, when the metal is introduced to water it speeds up this reaction. Also, if minerals in the water such as salt, calcium, etc. are present the speed of the process increases again. Corrosion and Scale Deposits add up to a reduction in flow area, an increase of the velocity of the liquid, and an increase in head loss due to friction. See Sacrificial Zinc Anode.

Corrosion-2-: The effects of a acidic pool environment. One in which the pH and/or alkalinity are very low. Corrosion in the form of etching, pitting, or erosion of pool equipment and surfaces is the result.

Coupling: A plumbing fitting designed to join two pieces of pipe.

Coupling-1-: Used to connect the pump to the driver. It transmits torque and compensates for axial growth, but not for radial misalignment.

Cover Automatic: Solid reinforced vinyl which rolls onto a reel on one end of the pool and attaches on the sides into small aluminum tracks. It can be be motorized or hand-crank style. Some models may snap the sides into small anchors placed into the deck providing more shape flexibility. Provides safety (with water pumped off - cover pump), debris protection, and heat/chemical/water retention.

Cover Hard: A cover which rests on the edge or coping of the spa or small pool. Provides a barrier to debris and possibly people, while keeping the heat trapped in. Cover Solar: Sometimes called a thermal blanket, this cover floats on the surface magnifying the sun's rays to warm the water and also prevents chemical/heat/water evaporation.

Cover Mesh: These stretch tightly across the pool like a trampoline. They are the only covers which can be called "safety covers" in that the mesh polypropylene allows precipitation to pass through.

Cover Solid: These are usually made of some form of plastic or vinyl and are secured around the edges either by aqua blocks, similar weight, or the edges attach to anchors set in the concrete or wood deck.

Cover Winter: A barrier to sun and debris, winter covers secure the pool from contamination. These are subdivided below.

C-PEX (PEX-C): PEX tubing manufactured using irradiation method of cross-linking. Similar to PEX-B tubing, C-PEX can be installed using Crimp, Clamp, Press and Push-Fit connection systems.

CPVC:  Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Class 23447-B, formerly designated Type IV, Grade 1 conforming to ASTM D-1784, has physical properties at 73°F similar to those of PVC, and its chemical resistance is similar to or generally better than that of PVC. CPVC, with a design stress of 2000 psi and maximum service temperature of 210°F, has proven to be an excellent material for hot corrosive liquids, hot or cold water distribution, and similar applications above the temperature range of PVC. CPVC is joined by solvent cementing, threading or flanging.

Crimp Method: PEX Crimp Connection Method is one of the most popular ways to connect PEX tubing and requires a PEX Crimp Tool, Copper Crimp Rings, Crimp PEX Fittings and PEX Tubing to make a proper PEX connection.

Crimp Rings-(Copper Crimp Rings): When PEX Fitting is fully inserted into the PEX tubing, Crimp Ring, together with PEX Crimp Tool, is used to compress the tubing over the fitting’s barbs, thus securing the connection. All PEX Crimp Rings are manufactured to ASTM standard F1807 and are often coated with black powder for enhanced corrosion resistance.

Crimp Tool (PEX Crimp Tool): A tool, used in conjunction with Copper Crimp Rings, Crimp Fittings and PEX tubing to make a PEX connection.

Critical lifts: Suction lifts greater than 25'.

Critical speed: Any object made of an elastic material has a natural period of vibration. When a pump rotor or shaft rotates at any speed corresponding to its natural frequency, minor unbalances will be magnified. These speeds are called the critical speeds.

Cross Connection: Any actual or potential unprotected connection between a drinking (potable) water system and any source of contamination (pool or other non-potable water) whereby back flow to the potable water system could occur. Appropriate protection may be vacuum breakers, air gaps or other methods.

Cross-linking: Cross-linking is done during or after the polymer has been extruded. Cross-linking process improve thermal properties, chemical resistance, strength, and other properties of the polymer.

Cryogenic: Very cold temperatures.

Cryptosporidium: A microorganism commonly found in lakes and rivers which is highly resistant to disinfection. Cryptosporidium has caused several large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness, with symptoms that include diarrhea, nausea, and/or stomach cramps. People with severely weakened immune systems (that is, severely immuno-compromised) are likely to have more severe and more persistent symptoms than healthy individuals.

CSA: Canadian Standards Association.Sets standards and approves motor for use in Canada.

Cubic feet per second (cfs): A rate of the flow, in streams and rivers, for example. It is equal to a volume of water one foot high and one foot wide flowing a distance of one foot in one second. One "cfs" is equal to 7.48 gallons of water flowing each second. As an example, if your car's gas tank is 2 feet by 1 foot by 1 foot (2 cubic feet), then gas flowing at a rate of 1 cubic foot/second would fill the tank in two seconds.

Current: The flow of electricity through a circuit. Current is measured in amperes (or amps).

Current-1-: The movement or flow of an electrical charge, matter, carried by electrons along a path (conductor, wire). It moves very slowly, about an inch an hour. Current is measured in terms of Amperes or Amps.

Cutoff Voltage: A voltage level or threshold where either the charging or discharging of a battery is ended, or should be ended for optimum battery life.

Cutout Point: The setting at which a pressure switch opens its contacts so that a pump stops pumping.

Cutwater: Directs the pumped liquid to the discharge piping.

Cutwater-1-: The thin portion of a centrifugal pump's volute closest to the impeller. Close tolerances between the cutwater and the impeller forces a higher volume of water out of a pump than loose tolerances.

Cutwater-2-:  The narrow space between the impeller and the casing in the discharge area of the casing. This is the area where pressure pulsations are created, each vane that crosses the cutwater produces a pulse. To reduce pulsations in critical process', more vanes are added.

CV Charging (Constant-Voltage Charge): Restoring charge to a battery in a mode where the battery’s terminal voltage is kept substantially constant, or kept below a certain level.

CV coefficient: A coefficient developed by control valve manufacturers that provides an indication of how much flow the valve can handle for a 1 psi pressure drop. For example, a control valve that has a CV of 500 will be able to pass 500 gpm with a pressure drop of 1 psi. CV coefficients are sometimes used for other devices such as check valves.

Cyanuric Acid: A chemical used for chlorine stabilization.

Cyanuric acid-1-: A granular chemical added to the pool water which provides a shield to chlorine for protection from UV radiation, which disrupts the molecule, destroying its sanitizing ability.

Cycle Depth: The degree to which the charge of a battery is drawn from it during discharge, expressed as a percentage of the total battery capacity.

Cycle Life: For secondary rechargeable cells or batteries, the total number of charge/discharge cycles the cell can sustain before it becomes inoperative. In practice, end of life is usually considered to be reached when the cell or battery delivers approximately 80% of rated ampere-hour capacity.

Cycle: One sequence of charge and discharge. Deep cycling requires that all the energy to an end voltage established for each system be drained from the cell or battery on each discharge. In shallow cycling, the energy is partially drained on each discharge; i.e., the energy may be any value up to 50%.

Cycle-1-: The time it takes for current to flow, pause, reverse direction, and pause again in an alternating current.